Development of ladle lining refractory materials

20th Century 50–70 years, China’s steel plants mainly used aluminosilicate refractory materials, including clay, alumina brick and so on. Since the 1980s, China has successively developed the aluminum-magnesium carbon, coal quality calcium and magnesium and other several series of new steel package refractories. Wherein the aluminum-magnesium carbon refractory materials are of varieties, all specifications, is China’s major ladle refractories.

In earliest 20th Century 50–60 years, a variety of clay bricks were mainly used in our country. Due to low cost, until the 1980s, some steel plants were using clay bricks as ladle lining material. Although clay bricks is no longer used as ladle material so far, it had made a great countribution for recovery and future development of China’s steel industry in the early days.

With the continuous development of steelmaking technology, steel quatity and quantity, clay bricks was no longer used because of short service life. Some of our mills started using a variety of high alumina bricks as ladle lining material, in which way the ladle life got a greatly improvement.

With the continuous improvement of steelmaking technology, high aluminum ramming mass, wax brick, alumina magnesia, aluminum-magnesium casting material, aluminum-magnesium unfired brick, aluminum-magnesium spinel castable, aluminum MgO-C, magnesium aluminate spinel brick, aluminum-magnesium unfired brick and a series of high-grade refractory materials appeared to adapt to higher demand.

Refractory technology plays an essential role in the steel industry. Refractory materials are strategic materials taking into account the fact that they enable the production of strategic building materials, such as steel, cement, or glass.

The sole basis for modern refractory technology is no longer the material’s inherent characteristics. It has developed into a field of technology that encompasses heat engineering, monitoring methods, furnace design, liner installation, and furnace operation. The development of refractory technology and refractory material suppliers coincided with improvements in steel and iron production technologies.

Although the ability to contain substances at high temperatures is correctly identified as the fundamental property of refractories, refractories consist of a large class of materials with this property varying degrees under various time and usage conditions. Refractory compositions come in a wide variety, are manufactured in different shapes and forms, and have been adapted for multiple applications. They will all experience temperatures above 1000°F (538°C) while in use unites them.

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How are refractory material made?

Firing involves heating the refractory material to high temperatures in a periodic (batch) or continuous tunnel kiln to form the ceramic bond that gives the product its refractory properties. The final processing stage involves milling, grinding, and sandblasting of the finished product.

What are the 5 refractory materials?

Refractory metals are a group of metallic elements that are highly resistant to heat and wear. It is generally accepted that tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum and rhenium best fit most definitions of refractory metals.

What is the best refractory material?

Hafnium carbide is the most refractory binary compound known, with a melting point of 3890 °C. The ternary compound tantalum hafnium carbide has one of the highest melting points of all known compounds (4215 °C).

How do you choose refractory material?

While there are a number of important criteria to consider, refractory engineers focus on five aspects to make an evaluation and choose a refractory material for each specific application: thermal, mechanical, chemical, logistics and value – as well as connections among these aspects.

How do you select refractory materials?

Refractories should have good thermal shock resistance. Refractories should have stable volume at high temperature and the residual expansion and contraction should be small. Heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and other thermal properties should meet the requirements.

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